Determinants of Symptomatic Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected Women in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Apalata, Teke; Carr, William H.; Sturm, Willem A.; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Moodley, Prashini
January 2014
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics & Gynecology;2014, p1
Academic Journal
Introduction. We sought to determine the association between HIV-induced immunosuppression, virologic correlates, and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study, where HIV infected and uninfected women were studied with VVC being the primary outcome. Ninety-seven HIV-infected and 101 HIV-uninfected women were enrolled between June andDecember 2011. Cases ofVVC were confirmed. HIV RNAload was determined by RT-PCR and CD4 counts were obtained from medical records. Results. Fifty-two of 97 (53.6%) HIV-infected and 38/101 (37.6%) HIV-uninfected women were diagnosed with VVC (P = 0.032). The relative risk for VVC amongstHIV-infected patients was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.04-2 P = 0.024). Cases of VVC increased at CD4+ T cell count below 200 cells/mm3 (P < 0.0001) and plasma HIV RNA load above 10 000 copies/mL (P < 0.0001). VVC was associated with increased genital shedding of HIV (P = 0.002), and there was a linear correlation between plasma HIV load and genital HIV shedding (r = 0.540; R2 = 0.292; P < 0.0001). Women on HAART were 4-fold less likely (P = 0.029) to develop VVC. Conclusion. CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm3 and plasmaHIV loads ⩾10 000 copies/mL were significantly associated with VVC.


Related Articles

  • Genital Tract Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Shedding and Inflammation and HIV-1 env Diversity in Perinatal HIV-1 Transmission. Panther, L.A.; Tucker, L.; Xu, C.; Tuomala, R.E.; Mullins, J.I.; Anderson, D.J. // Journal of Infectious Diseases;2/1/2000, Vol. 181 Issue 2, p555 

    Studies genital tract characteristics associated with vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Increased HIV-1 DNA shedding from the cervix in both pregnant and nonpregnant women; Association between the presence of vaginal candidiasis and perinatal transmission;...

  • Association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis and HIV RNA levels in plasma and genital secretions among women on HAART. Apalata, T.; Carr, W. H.; Longo-Mbenza, B.; Sturm, W. A.; Moodley, P. // Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine;Jun2014, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p57 

    Background. Genital tract (GT) inflammation plays a major role in HIV transmission. We aimed to determine the association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and HIV RNA levels in plasma and GTs of HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Method. Women...

  • Prevalence of Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis in Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Li, Jianling; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping // Mycopathologia;Oct2014, Vol. 178 Issue 3/4, p279 

    Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis were isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis were found in presumptive Candida glabrata isolates, which were identified using the API Candida system. We retrospectively re-examined vaginal...

  • Vulvovaginal candida in a young sexually active population: prevalence and association with oro-genital sex and frequent pain at intercourse. Rylander E; Berglund A-L; Krassny C; Petrini B; Rylander, E; Berglund, A-L; Krassny, C; Petrini, B // Sexually Transmitted Infections;Feb2004, Vol. 80 Issue 1, p54 

    Objective: To study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candida among sexually active adolescents. To determine past and present symptoms, including pain at intercourse and potential behavioural risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis.Methods: At an adolescent...

  • Recurrent and persistent thrush in pregnancy. Duncan, Deborah // British Journal of Midwifery;Nov2014, Vol. 22 Issue 11, p782 

    This article looks at the diagnosis and management of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) in non-pregnant and pregnant women. This is a distressing condition that can cause a variety of different symptoms, including preterm labour. Although it is a commonly occurring infection in up to 40%...

  • Diagnosis of Candida Species Isolated from Patients with Vaginal Candidiasis and Healthy Individuals Based on Clinical Symptoms and Paraclinical Evidences. Dehghan, Parvin; Kharazi, Mahboobeh; Yazdani, Maryam; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Chadeganipour, Mostafa; Akbari, Mojtaba // Journal of Isfahan Medical School;12/17/2012, Vol. 30 Issue 209, p1 

    Background: Vaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infections and almost 75% of healthy females get infected by these yeasts at least once during their reproductive age. The present study aimed to isolate and identify Candida species from the patients with vaginal candidiasis and...

  • Assessment and diagnosis.  // Practice Nursing;Jul2010, Vol. 21 Issue 7, p366 

    The article focuses on the assessment and diagnosis of a non-sexually transmitted infection called Acute Vulvovaginal Candidiasis, commonly called thrush. It notes that thrush occurs in lower genital tract and is caused by a fungal or yeast organism. The symptoms include thick white discharges...

  • Candida glabrata: un oportunista emergente en vulvovaginitis. García-Figueroa, Rafael Buitrón; Araiza-Santibáñez, Javier; Basurto-Kuba, Erich; Bonifaz-Trujillo, Alexandro // Cirugia y Cirujanos;nov/dic2009, Vol. 77 Issue 6, p455 

    Background: Candida genus has various species. The incidence of C. glabrata has presented itself with more frequency over the past years with clinical importance. Methods: A case study was made to determine the frequency of C. glabrata in 468 patients who presented clinical symptomatology for...

  • Genital Tract Leukocytes and Shedding of Genital HIV Type 1 RNA. Anderson, Brenna L.; Chia-Ching Wang; DeLong, Allison K.; Liu, Tao; Kojic, Erna Milu; Kurpewski, Jaclynn; Ingersoll, Jessica; Mayer, Kenneth; Caliendo, Angela M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan // Clinical Infectious Diseases;11/1/2008, Vol. 47 Issue 9, p1216 

    Background. The mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via heterosexual intercourse is unknown. We sought to determine whether the presence of inflammatory cells in the vagina is associated with the presence of genital tract HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA. Methods. Analysis of a...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics