The Direct Medical Cost of Type 2 Diabetes

Brandle, Michael; Zhou, Honghong; Smith, Barbara R.K.; Marriott, Deanna; Burke, Ray; Tabaei, Bahman P.; Brown, Morton B.; Herman, William H.
August 2003
Diabetes Care;Aug2003, Vol. 26 Issue 8, p2300
Academic Journal
OBJECTIVE — To describe the direct medical costs associated with type 2 diabetes, as well as its treatments, complications, and comorbidities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — We studied a random sample of 1,364 subjects with type 2 diabetes who were members of a Michigan health maintenance organization. Demographic characteristics, duration of diabetes, diabetes treatments, glycemic control, complications, and comorbidities were assessed by surveys and medical chart reviews. Annual resource utilization and costs were assessed using health insurance claims. The log-transformed annual direct medical costs were fitted by multiple linear regression to indicator variables for demographics, treatments, glycemic control, complications, and comorbidities. RESULTS — The median annual direct medical costs for subjects with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes, BMI 30 kg/m², and no microvascular, neuropathic, or cardiovascular complications were $1,700 for white men and $2,100 for white women. A 10-kg/m² increase in BMI, treatment with oral antidiabetic or antihypertensive agents, diabetic kidney disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease were each associated with 10-30% increases in cost. Insulin treatment, angina, and MI were each associated with 60-90% increases in cost. Dialysis was associated with an 11-fold increase in cost. CONCLUSIONS — Insulin treatment and diabetes complications have a substantial impact on the direct medical costs of type 2 diabetes. The estimates presented in this model may be used to analyze the cost-effectiveness of interventions for type 2 diabetes.


Related Articles

  • Strategies for health care cost containment. Mitchell, George A. // Employee Benefits Journal;Jun95, Vol. 20 Issue 2, p18 

    Describe the strategies for health care cost containment in Canada in the wake of rising health care costs. Discussion on increasing benefit plan costs; Traditional methods of cost containment; Managed health care; Examples of managed care plan; Advantages and disadvantages of managed care...

  • Everyone must do his share.  // Finance Week;9/16/2002, p55 

    Explores possible solutions to the problem of rising health care costs in South Africa. Global trends contributing to cost increases in medical care; Options available in containing costs; Role of the public and private sectors in cost containment.

  • Committed to cutting costs.  // Finance Week;9/16/2002, p60 

    Describes strategies and schemes for controlling health care costs in South Africa. Managed health care systems; Disease management programs; Provider networks; Performance-based reimbursement models.

  • Painful vs painless cost control. Grumbach, Kevin; Bodenheimer, Thomas // JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association;11/9/94, Vol. 272 Issue 18, p1458 

    Explores the painful-painless cost-control debate in medical care. Relationship between health care costs and benefits; General approaches to cost containment; Specific cost-control measures.

  • Study: Healthcare costs rise slower than the CPI. Geisel, Jerry // Modern Healthcare;10/9/95, Vol. 25 Issue 41, p62 

    Reports on the results of a study conducted by KPMG Peat Marwick that provides evidence that employers have healthcare cost increases under control. Increase in group healthcare premiums between the spring of 1994 and the spring of 1995; Growth of the health maintenance organization's market share.

  • Saving Money: What Works And What Doesn't?  // Health Affairs;Sep/Oct2009, Vol. 28 Issue 5, p1316 

    The article presents an introduction to papers on health care cost control, including one by Randall Krakauer and colleages on tightening coordination to achieve savings and patient satisfaction, one by Michael Chernew and colleagues on the effects of primary care doctors on health spending...

  • Current Attempts to Control Health Care-Blueprint for Disaster. Lesse, Stanley // American Journal of Psychotherapy;Jan1989, Vol. 43 Issue 1, p1 

    Editorial. Discusses the failure of the United States government to control health care costs. Total health care expenditure in the U.S. from 1965 to 1987; View of annual health care expenditures in relationship to the gross national product (GNP); Projected rise of per hospital acute-care...

  • BY THE NUMBERS.  // Modern Physician;Apr2003, Vol. 7 Issue 4, p28 

    Presents statistics on healthcare spending worldwide from 1980 through 2000.

  • Inferences about population means of health care costs. Zhou, Xiao-Hua // Statistical Methods in Medical Research;Aug2002, Vol. 11 Issue 4, p327 

    The analysis of health care costs is complicated by the skewed and heteroscedastic nature of their distribution with possibly additional zero values. Statistical methods that do not adjust for these features can lead to incorrect conclusions. This paper reviews recent developments in statistical...

  • PPI: Hospital prices increase 0.3%.  // AHA News;05/14/2001, Vol. 37 Issue 19, p3 

    Reports that the overall hospital prices in the United States (U.S.) have increased in April 2001, according to a report released by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics on May 11, 2001. Percentage of increase in hospital prices in March 2001; Price increases at the hospitals; Price status for...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics