Gut Microbiota and Host Metabolism: What Relationship

Mithieux, Gilles
May 2018
Neuroendocrinology;May2018, Vol. 106 Issue 4, p352
Academic Journal
A large number of genomic studies have reported associations between the gut microbiota composition and metabolic diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. This led to the widespread idea that a causal relationship could exist between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases. At odds with this idea, some compelling studies reported that global changes in microbiota composition have no effect on the host metabolism in obese mice or humans. However, specific bacteria are able to confer host metabolic benefits, such as Akkermansia muciniphila or Prevotella copri, when they are given by gavage in obese mice. A crucial link by which gut bacteria communicate with the host mucosa is based on metabolites or low-molecular-weight compounds. Among them, short-chain fatty acids produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers initiate beneficial effects on the host metabolism via the activation of intestinal gluconeogenesis (a mucosal function exerting antidiabetic and antiobesity effects through the activation of gut-brain neural circuits). However, fermentation of short-chain fatty acids is a function that is widespread among the main bacterial phyla and thus weakly depends on microbiota composition. Therefore, even if some bacteria may confer on the host metabolic benefits, the causal role of microbiota in metabolic diseases is not established.


Related Articles

  • Gut Microbiota Signatures Predict Host and Microbiota Responses to Dietary Interventions in Obese Individuals. Korpela, Katri; Flint, Harry J.; Johnstone, Alexandra M.; Lappi, Jenni; Poutanen, Kaisa; Dewulf, Evelyne; Delzenne, Nathalie; de Vos, Willem M.; Salonen, Anne // PLoS ONE;Mar2014, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p1 

    Background: Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on...

  • The hybrid science of diet, microbes, and metabolic health. Shanahan, Fergus; Murphy, Eileen // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition;Jul2011, Vol. 94 Issue 1, p1 

    The author discusses the interactions of diet, microbes, and fat metabolism as well as the risk of metabolic disease. The author cites evidence linking the effect of disturbances of innate immunity on microbiota which adversely influence inflammatory response and risk of obesity and diabetes....

  • Gut microbiome and its role in obesity and insulin resistance. Lee, Clare J.; Sears, Cynthia L.; Maruthur, Nisa // Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences;Feb2020, Vol. 1461 Issue 1, p37 

    Obesity is a complex metabolic disease caused, in part, by the interaction between an individual's genetics, metabolism, and environment. Emerging evidence supports the role of gut microbiota in mediating the interaction between the host and environment by extracting energy from food otherwise...

  • Gut: Why do the different people's bodies react differently to a high-fat diet?  // Biomedical Market Newsletter;4/28/2012, Vol. 21, p1 

    The article focuses on a study, according to which the composition of the gut flora determine the way in which the body develops metabolic disorders such as diabetes, regardless of any genetic modification, gender, age or specific diet.

  • Programming of Host Metabolism by the Gut Microbiota. Bäckhed, Fredrik // Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism;Aug2011 Supplement, Vol. 58, p44 

    The human gut harbors a vast ensemble of bacteria that has co-evolved with the human host and performs several important functions that affect our physiology and metabolism. The human gut is sterile at birth and is subsequently colonized with bacteria from the mother and the environment. The...

  • Characterisation of Gut Microbiota in Ossabaw and Göttingen Minipigs as Models of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. Pedersen, Rebecca; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Sturek, Michael; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Cirera, Susanna; Christoffersen, Berit Ø.; Moesgaard, Sophia G.; Larsen, Niels; Boye, Mette // PLoS ONE;Feb2013, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p1 

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is an important contributing factor to obesity and obesity related metabolic disorders, known as the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to characterise the intestinal microbiota in two pig models of obesity namely...

  • Gut permeability, obesity, and metabolic disorders: who is the chicken and who is the egg? Fasano, Alessio // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition;1/1/2017, Vol. 105 Issue 1, p3 

    An introduction is presented in which the author discusses another article in the issue that examines gut permeability in obese people with and without liver steatosis who underwent a weight-reduction program, and it mentions metabolic disorders and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  • Diet, Microbiota, Obesity, and NAFLD: A Dangerous Quartet. Machado, Mariana Verdelho; Cortez-Pinto, Helena // International Journal of Molecular Sciences;2016, Vol. 17 Issue 4, p481 

    Recently, the importance of the gut-liver-adipose tissue axis has become evident. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic disease of a systemic metabolic disorder that radiates from energy-surplus induced adiposopathy. The gut microbiota has tremendous influences in our...

  • Non Digestible Oligosaccharides Modulate the Gut Microbiota to Control the Development of Leukemia and Associated Cachexia in Mice. Bindels, Laure B.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Salazar, Nuria; Taminiau, Bernard; Druart, Céline; Muccioli, Giulio G.; François, Emmanuelle; Blecker, Christophe; Richel, Aurore; Daube, Georges; Mahillon, Jacques; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Cani, Patrice D.; Delzenne, Nathalie M. // PLoS ONE;Jun2015, Vol. 10 Issue 6, p1 

    We tested the hypothesis that changing the gut microbiota using pectic oligosaccharides (POS) or inulin (INU) differently modulates the progression of leukemia and related metabolic disorders. Mice were transplanted with Bcr-Abl-transfected proB lymphocytes mimicking leukemia and received either...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics