Mechanism of Superoxide Anion Generation in Intact Mitochondria in the Presence of Lucigenin and Cyanide

Yurkov, I. S.; Kruglov, A. G.; Evtodienko, Yu. V.; Yaguzhinsky, L. S.
December 2003
Biochemistry (00062979);Dec2003, Vol. 68 Issue 12, p1349
Academic Journal
In the presence of cyanide and various respiratory substrates (succinate or pyruvate + malate) addition of high concentrations of lucigenin (400 μM; Luc2+) to rat liver mitochondria can induce a short-term flash of high amplitude lucigenindependent chemiluminescence (LDCL). Under conditions of cytochrome oxidase inhibition by cyanide the lucigenininduced cyanide-resistant respiration (with succinate as substrate) was not inhibited by uncouplers (FCCP) and oligomycin. Increase in transmembrane potential (Δϕ) value by stimulating F0F1-ATPase functioning (induced by addition of MgATP to the incubation medium) caused potent stimulation of the rate of cyanide-resistant respiration. At high Δϕ values (in the presence of MgATP) cyanide resistant respiration of mitochondria in the presence of succinate or malate with pyruvate was insensitive to tenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) or rotenone, respectively. However, in both cases respiration was effectively inhibited by myxothiazol or antimycin A. Mechanisms responsible for induction of LDCL and cyanide resistant mitochondrial respiration differ. In contrast to cyanide-resistant respiration, generation of LDCL signal, that was suppressed only by combined addition of Complex III inhibitors, antimycin A and myxothiazol, is a strictly potential-dependent process. It is observed only under conditions of high Δϕ value generated by F0F1-ATPase functioning. The data suggest lucigenin-induced intensive generation of superoxide anion in mitochondria. Based on results of inhibitor analysis of cyanide-resistant respiration and LDCL, a two-stage mechanism of autooxidizable lucigenin cation-radical (Luc·+) formation in the respiratory chain is proposed. The first stage involves two-electron Luc2+ reduction by Complexes I and II. The second stage includes one-electron oxidation of reduced lucigenin (Luc(2e)). Reactions of Luc(2e) oxidation involve coenzyme Q-binding sites of Complex III. This results in formation of autooxidizable Luc·+ and superoxide anion generation. A new scheme for lucigenin-dependent electron pathways is proposed. It includes formation of fully reduced form of lucigenin and two-electron-transferring shunts of the respiratory chain. Lucigenin-induced activation of superoxide anion formation in mitochondria is accompanied by increase in ion permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane.


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