Variation in Toxin Production among Isolates of Sarocladium oryzae, the Rice Sheath Rot Pathogen

Nandakumar, R.; Babu, S.; Amutha, G.; Raguchander, T.; Samiyappan, R.
June 2007
Plant Pathology Journal;2007, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p120
Academic Journal
Phytotoxic metabolite produced by the five different isolates of Sarocladium oryzae, the rice sheath rot pathogen, was isolated from its in vitro culture filtrate to know the variability among isolates in terms of toxin production. The toxin was purified through solvent extraction and then by gel filtration on sephadex column. Carbohydrate and protein content of the toxin and the quantity of phytotoxin produced in planta were varied among isolates. Toxin from the five isolates also showed variation in its biological activity as detected in its ability to induce sheath rot symptoms on detached leaf sheath, greenhouse grown plants and to cause leakage of electrolytes from rice leaf sheath. The symptoms produced by the purified toxin were, symptoms similar to those of natural infection by the pathogen. The virulent isolates SO1 and SO2 produced more amount of toxin, more leakage of electrolytes and severe sheath rot symptoms. The in planta toxin production by different isolates was detected serologically, using the polyclonal antibody produced against SO1 toxin. Correlation between the variation in toxin production and the virulence of the pathogen was discussed.


Related Articles

  • Host Immune Responses to Aeromonas Virulence Factors. Galindo, Cristi L.; Sha, Jian; Fadl, Amin A.; Pillai, Lakshmi L.; Chopra, Ashok K. // Current Immunology Reviews;2006, Vol. 2 Issue 1, p13 

    Aeromonas species are emerging human pathogens, which produce an array of virulence factors and cause diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to systemic infections. These bacteria can be found in food and water and grow well and produce toxins at refrigeration temperatures, which greatly increase...

  • The role of the inflammasome in cellular responses to toxins and bacterial effectors. Freche, Barbara; Reig, Núria; Goot, F. // Seminars in Immunopathology;Sep2007, Vol. 29 Issue 3, p249 

    Invading pathogens are recognized by mammalian cells through dedicated receptors found either at the cell surface or in the cytoplasm. These receptors, like the trans-membrane Toll-like Receptors (TLR) or the cytosolic Nod-like Receptors (NLR), initiate innate immunity after recognition of...

  • Pore-forming bacterial toxins and antimicrobial peptides as modulators of ADAM function. Reiss, Karina; Bhakdi, Sucharit // Medical Microbiology & Immunology;Nov2012, Vol. 201 Issue 4, p419 

    Membrane-perturbating proteins and peptides are widespread agents in biology. Pore-forming bacterial toxins represent major virulence factors of pathogenic microorganisms. Membrane-damaging peptides constitute important antimicrobial effectors of innate immunity. Membrane perturbation can incur...

  • TcdC Does Not Significantly Repress Toxin Expression in Clostridium difficile 630ΔErm. Bakker, Dennis; Smits, Wiep Klaas; Kuijper, Ed J.; Corver, Jeroen; Popoff, Michel R. // PLoS ONE;Aug2012, Vol. 7 Issue 8, Special section p1 

    In the past decade, Clostridium difficile has emerged as an important gut pathogen. Symptoms of C. difficile infection range from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis, sometimes resulting in colectomy or death. The main virulence factors of C. difficile are toxin A and toxin B. Besides...

  • Rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae produces multiple DSF-family signals in regulation of virulence factor production. Ya-Wen He; Ji'en Wu; Jae-Soon Cha; Lian-Hui Zhang // BMC Microbiology;2010, Vol. 10, p187 

    Background: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease. Xoo produces a range of virulence factors, including EPS, extracellular enzyme, iron-chelating siderophores, and type III-secretion dependent effectors, which are collectively essential for...

  • pathogen:. Huber, Jeffrey T.; Gillaspy, Mary L. // Encyclopedic Dictionary of AIDS-Related Terminology;2000, p173 

    A definition of the term "pathogen," which refers to any agent, especially a microorganism, capable of causing disease, is presented.

  • toxigenicity.  // Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (2009);2009, Issue 21, p2344 

    A definition of the term "toxigenicity," which refers to the virulence of a toxin-producing pathogenic organism, is presented.

  • Fatal Disseminated Cryptococcus gattii Infection in New Mexico. Walraven, Carla J.; Gerstein, Wendy; Hardison, Sarah E.; Wormley, Floyd; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Harris, Julie R.; Fothergill, Annette; Wickes, Brian; Gober-Wilcox, Julie; Massie, Larry; Ku, T. S. Neil; Firacative, Carolina; Meyer, Wieland; Lee, Samuel A. // PLoS ONE;2011, Vol. 6 Issue 12, p1 

    We report a case of fatal disseminated infection with Cryptococcus gattii in a patient from New Mexico. The patient had no history of recent travel to known C. gattii-endemic areas. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that the isolate belonged to the major molecular type VGIII. Virulence studies...

  • A hitchhiker's guide to the nervous system: the complex journey of viruses and toxins. Salinas, Sara; Schiavo, Giampietro; Kremer, Eric J. // Nature Reviews Microbiology;Sep2010, Vol. 8 Issue 9, p645 

    To reach the central nervous system (CNS), pathogens have to circumvent the wall of tightly sealed endothelial cells that compose the blood–brain barrier. Neuronal projections that connect to peripheral cells and organs are the Achilles heels in CNS isolation. Some viruses and bacterial...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics