Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss

King, N. A.; Hopkins, M.; Caudwell, P.; Stubbs, R. J.; Blundell, J. E.
January 2008
International Journal of Obesity;Jan2008, Vol. 32 Issue 1, p177
Academic Journal
Objective:To identify and characterize the individual variability in compensation for exercise-induced changes in energy expenditure (EE).Design:Twelve-week exercise intervention.Subjects:Thirty-five overweight and obese sedentary men and women (body mass index, 31.8±4.1 kg m−2; age, 39.6±11.0 years) were prescribed exercise five times per week for 12 weeks under supervised conditions.Measurements:Body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), total daily energy intake (EI) and subjective appetite sensations were measured at weeks 0 and 12.Results:When all subjects' data were pooled, the mean reduction in body weight (3.7±3.6 kg) was significant (P<0.0001) and as predicted, which suggested no compensation for the increase in EE. However, further examination revealed a large individual variability in weight change (−14.7 to +1.7 kg). Subjects were identified as compensators (C) or noncompensators (NC) based on their actual weight loss (mean NC=6.3±3.2 kg and C=1.5± 2.5 kg) relative to their predicted weight loss. C and NC were characterized by their different metabolic and behavioural compensatory responses. Moderate changes in RMR occurred in C (−69.2±268.7 kcal day−1) and NC (14.2±242.7 kcal day−1). EI and average daily subjective hunger increased by 268.2±455.4 kcal day−1 and 6.9±11.4 mm day−1 in C, whereas EI decreased by 130±485 kcal day−1 and there was no change in subjective appetite (0.4±9.6 mm day−1) in NC.Conclusion:These results demonstrate that expressing the exercise-induced change in body weight as a group mean conceals the large inter-individual variability in body weight and compensatory responses. Individuals who experience a lower than predicted weight loss are compensating for the increase in EE.International Journal of Obesity (2008) 32, 177–184; doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803712; published online 11 September 2007


Related Articles

  • RESEARCH REGARDING THE ASSESSMENT OF A BODY'S NORMAL SIZE BY USING THE BODY MASS INDEX.  // Gymnasium: Journal of Physical Education & Sports;2010, Vol. 11 Issue 2, p14 

    The article focuses on a study on the use of body mass index to assess the normal body size. The study was conducted at the Faculty of Sports, Movement and Health Sciences of Romania, which aimed at promoting exercise to increase awareness related to obesity in the state and reveals high ratio...

  • Long-term Mortality in a Cohort of Severely Obese Persons in Italy. Mirabelli, Dario; Chiusolo, Monica; Ferrante, Daniela; Balzola, Franco; Merletti, Franco; Petroni, Maria L. // Obesity (19307381);Aug2008, Vol. 16 Issue 8, p1920 

    The article discusses a study on long-term mortality in a group of severely obese individuals in Italy. The study involved 4,837 people referred to six centers for obesity treatment between 1975 and 1996. According to the findings of prospective cohort studies conducted in the U.S. and Northern...

  • HALF HOUR NOT ENOUGH.  // Nutrition Action Health Letter;Dec2003, Vol. 30 Issue 10, p10 

    Presents the results of a study of overweight and obese men and women which determined that half an hour of brisk walking everyday may not be enough to lose weight and keep it off. Comparison of the weight lost between those who were told to burn 1,000 calories a week and those who were told to...

  • Long term effects of a continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on weight changes and body fat percentage inoverweight and obese women. Alizadeh, Zahra; Younespour, Shima; Ali Mansournia, Mohammad // Tehran University Medical Journal;Jan2013, Vol. 70 Issue 10, p630 

    Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are growing problem. The global community's concern is to find the best strategy to obtain a more efficient process of weight reduction, increase physical activity, and minimize weight regain level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the...

  • Patterns of Obesity Among Men and Women In Rhode Island In 2007. Risica, Patricia Markham; Hesser, Jana; Yongwen Jiang; Taylor, Kathleen // Medicine & Health Rhode Island;Dec2009, Vol. 92 Issue 12, p420 

    The article discusses male and female obesity rates in Rhode Island as of 2007. It notes that there is a significant increase in overweight adults in Rhode Island and in the U.S. which have huge implications on associated diseases, health care costs, and loss of productivity. It defines...

  • fat boy, slim! Smiedt, David // Australian Table;Nov2006, Vol. 8 Issue 4, p115 

    The article focuses on overweight men and women in Australia. Overweight and obesity are defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council according to the body mass index (BMI). BMI is weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. A survey by Nutrition Australia found that...

  • Recent dynamics suggest selected countries catching up to US obesity.  // American Journal of Clinical Nutrition;Jan2010, Vol. 91 Issue 1, p284S 

    The article presents a study which examines body mass index (BMI) data for women and men in the U.S., Great Britain, China and Australia. Quantile regression analysis having BMI was used to identify the outcome and the coefficients of age in determining mean BMI at the 95th centile for every age...

  • Is obesity all in the mind?  // India Today;2/21/2011, p14 

    The article discusses the different perceptions of fat Indian men and women. According to a report from Yale University in the U.S., which was published in the "International Journal of Obesity," women who gain a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 27 are already seen as fat, whereas men have to gain more...

  • Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Quantity and Weight Loss in Women Participating in a Weight-Loss Intervention Trial. Thomson, Cynthia A.; Morrow, Kelly L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Ravia, Jennifer J.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Karanja, Njeri; Rock, Cheryl L. // Obesity (19307381);Jul2012, Vol. 20 Issue 7, p1419 

    Evidence suggests that individuals who report fewer total hours of sleep are more likely to be overweight or obese. Few studies have prospectively evaluated weight-loss success in relation to reported sleep quality and quantity. This analysis sought to determine the association between sleep...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics