TITLE

Speaker-External Versus Speaker-Internal Forces on Utterance Form: Do Cognitive Demands Override Threats to Referential Success?

AUTHOR(S)
Lane, Liane Wardlow; Ferreira, Victor S.
PUB. DATE
November 2008
SOURCE
Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory & Cognition;Nov2008, Vol. 34 Issue 6, p1466
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
To what extent do speaker-external communicative pressures versus speaker-internal cognitive pressures affect utterance form? Four experiments measured speakers' references to privately known (i.e., privileged) objects when naming mutually known (i.e., common ground) objects. Although speaker-external communicative pressures demanded that speakers avoid references to privileged objects, 2 experiments showed that speakers often ignored this demand when it coexisted with a speaker-internal pressure to attend to those privileged objects. The authors hypothesize that this was due to increased salience of privileged objects (a speaker-internal pressure). Experiment 3 showed that directly boosting the salience of privileged objects increased the likelihood that speakers will inappropriately refer to those objects. Experiment 4 showed that the salience-sensitive mechanism in Experiments 1 and 2 is likely related to the mechanism causing such references in Experiment 3. Thus, the language production system is especially sensitive to cognitive pressures even when communicative harm results.
ACCESSION #
35432705

 

Related Articles

  • Are You a Good Listener? Friedman, Nancy // Podiatry Management;Apr/May2007, Vol. 26 Issue 4, p279 

    The article discusses the steps to becoming a better listener. The first step is the individual's personal commitment to being a better listener. It is also important to be obviously friendly. Concentration is also important to becoming a better listener. Because the mind processes information...

  • Knowledge, Learning and the Evolution of Conservation Practice for Social-Ecological System Resilience. Berkes, Fikret; Turner, Nancy J. // Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal;Aug2006, Vol. 34 Issue 4, p479 

    There are two broadly conceptualized ways in which conservation knowledge may evolve: the depletion crisis model and the ecological understanding model. The first one argues that developing conservation thought and practice depends on learning that resources are depletable. Such learning...

  • Are Arabic and Verbal Numbers Processed in Different Ways? Kadosh, Roi Cohen; Henik, Avishai; Rubinsten, Orly // Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory & Cognition;Nov2008, Vol. 34 Issue 6, p1377 

    Four experiments were conducted in order to examine effects of notation-Arabic and verbal numbers-on relevant and irrelevant numerical processing. In Experiment 1, notation interacted with the numerical distance effect, and irrelevant physical size affected numerical processing (i.e., size...

  • Driven by Power? Probe Question and Presentation Format Effects on Causal Judgment. Perales, José C.; Shanks, David R. // Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory & Cognition;Nov2008, Vol. 34 Issue 6, p1482 

    It has been proposed that causal power (defined as the probability with which a candidate cause would produce an effect in the absence of any other background causes) can be intuitively computed from cause-effect covariation information. Estimation of power is assumed to require a special type...

  • Channel L-I-S-T-E-N. Cashman, Mildred Berwick // Education;Sep1961, Vol. 82 Issue 1, p50 

    The article focuses on ways and means to establish habits of good listening. This may be accomplished in several ways. In school it must begin with the teacher. Teachers should have clear concepts of all the listening elements, and know how to train pupils in becoming efficient listeners. There...

  • Taking the time to 'stop and stare.'. Kelly, Eileen // World of Irish Nursing & Midwifery;Dec2005, Vol. 13 Issue 11, p24 

    Expresses opinion on the importance of listening as a communication skill. Advice for an effective communication; Advantages of listening; Factors that affect listening activity.

  • Development of Photogenic Comprehension. Beilin, Harry // Art Education;Mar83, Vol. 36 Issue 2, p28 

    The article focuses on the development of photogenic comprehension. It is forwarded that much endeavor is used in the attempt to comprehend how reading skill is acquired, but little effort is devoted to whether children understand what they view in pictures and how they gain the competence...

  • Become A Great Listener.  // TeamWork;Jan2010, Vol. 16 Issue 12, p5 

    The article provides some tips on how to become a good listener. It states the relevance of focusing on the team's conversation or discussion to develop one's listening skills. It cites that being quiet during a meeting or forum and thinking before deciding to speak up could also help in...

  • Learning Rule-Described and Non-Rule-Described Categories: A Comparison of Children and Adults. Minda, John Paul; Desroches, Amy S.; Church, Barbara A. // Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory & Cognition;Nov2008, Vol. 34 Issue 6, p1518 

    Three experiments investigated the ability of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-old children as well as adults to learn sets of perceptual categories. Adults and children performed comparably on categories that could be learned by either a single-dimensional rule or by associative learning mechanisms. However,...

Share

Read the Article

Courtesy of THE LIBRARY OF VIRGINIA

Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics