Potential Bridges of Heterosexual HIV Transmission from Drug Users to the General Population in St. Petersburg, Russia: Is it Easy to be a Young Female?

Toussova, Olga; Shcherbakova, Irina; Volkova, Galina; Niccolai, Linda; Heimer, Robert; Kozlov, Andrei
July 2009
Journal of Urban Health;Jul2009 Supplement 1, Vol. 86, p121
Academic Journal
The epidemic of HIV in St. Petersburg, which is currently concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs), may be penetrating into the general population. Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners (SP) could be potential bridges in an expanding epidemic. To investigate potential bridges, we accrued a convenience sample of 288 non-IDUs whose HIV diagnosis was attributed to sexual transmission and we determined the proportion that had IDUs among their SP. Having IDU SP ever (lifetime) and IDU SP in the last year were the key variables for the analysis of potential bridges in this study. The interaction of gender and age was found to be a significant predictor of having lifetime IDU SP ( p = 0.006, χ2 test) and IDU SP in the last year ( p = 0.05, χ2 test): females aged 26 and younger were more likely to have both lifetime IDU SP and IDU SP in the last year. Among the group of young females, 46% reported ever having an IDU SP. Out of young women reporting ever having an IDU SP, 85% also reported at least one lifetime non-IDU SP. Among the females aged 26 or younger, a lower level of education (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–6.7), being born in St. Petersburg (OR = 2.9, CI = 1.2–7.2), and alcohol use in the last 30 days (OR = 3.5, CI = 1.3–9.6) were significant correlates for ever having had an IDU SP. Urgent efforts are necessary to expand HIV prevention to target the potential bridging population to prevent further transmission.


Related Articles

  • Sexually Transmitted Infections among Adolescents and Young Adults in India. Sarkar, Narendra Nath // International Medical Journal;Jul2008, Vol. 15 Issue 3, p205 

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to enumerate and elucidate the type and nature of sexually transmitted infections (RTI) including HIV/AIDS affecting people in India. Methods: Data were extracted from the literature using MEDLINE database service for years 2002-07. The original articles,...

  • When one can infect two: a reflection on the impact of HIV discordance on child HIV infection. Binagwaho, Agnes; Ratnayake, Niloo; Mukherjee, Joia; Mugabo, Jules; Karita, Etienne; Pegurri, Elisabetta // Pan African Medical Journal;2011, Vol. 5, p1 

    This is an opinion piece based on data and experience from Rwanda. The authors believe this opinion piece may help improve current programs on prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child in Africa taking into account the prevalence of HIV sero-discordance in couples. The authors...

  • Radio role models for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and HIV testing among pregnant women in Botswana. SEBERT KUHLMANN, ANNE K.; KRAFT, JOAN MARIE; GALAVOTTI, CHRISTINE; CREEK, TRACY L.; MOOKI, MAUNGO; NTUMY, RAPHAEL // Health Promotion International;Sep2008, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p260 

    Although Botswana supports a program for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of H/V (PMTCT), many women initially did not take advantage of the program. Using data from a 2003 survey of 504 pregnant and post-partum women, we assessed associations between exposure to a long-running...

  • AIDS epidemic at age 25 and control efforts in China. Yiming Shao // Retrovirology;2006, Vol. 3, p87 

    In the first 10 years of AIDS epidemic in China, intravenous drug users (IDUs) and Former Plasma Donors (FPDs) were hardly hit in the late 1980s and mid 1990s respectively. In the last 10 years, while IDU epidemic keeps at a fast pace, sexual transmitted cases of HIV have been steadily...

  • How Do You Get AIDS?  // Public Health Reports;May/Jun88, Vol. 103 Issue 3, p2 

    The article discusses how a person can get AIDS from sex. The AIDS virus can be spread by sexual intercourse, whether male or female. A person infected with AIDS may have the virus in semen or vaginal fluids. Anal intercourse is risky. Other sexually transmitted diseases can also be contracted...

  • You Won't Get AIDS From Insects—Or A Kiss.  // Public Health Reports;May/Jun88, Vol. 103 Issue 3, p321 

    The article dispels the myth that a person can get AIDS from insects or a kiss. It discusses the transmission of AIDS through sexual intercourse, the sharing of drug needles, or to babies of infected mothers before or during birth. The article reveals that a person won't get the AIDS virus...

  • Knowledge, perceived stigma, and care-seeking experiences for sexually transmitted infections: a qualitative study from the perspective of public clinic attendees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Malta, Monica; Bastos, Francisco I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Cunnigham, Shayna D.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Kerrigan, Deanna // BMC Public Health;2007, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p18 

    Background: An estimated 12 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are documented in Brazil per year. Given the scope of this public health challenge and the importance of prompt treatment and follow-up counseling to reduce future STI/HIV-related risk behavior, we sought to qualitatively...

  • The Potential for Bridging of HIV Transmission in the Russian Federation: Sex Risk Behaviors and HIV Prevalence among Drug Users (DUs) and their Non-DU Sex Partners. Niccolai, Linda; Shcherbakova, Irina; Toussova, Olga; Kozlov, Andrei; Heimer, Robert // Journal of Urban Health;Jul2009 Supplement 1, Vol. 86, p131 

    The HIV epidemic that began in Russia in the mid-1990s has been concentrated mostly among drug users (DUs). Recent evidence of increasing HIV cases among non-DUs attributed to sexual behavior raises potential concern about a more generalized epidemic. The purpose of this analysis is to examine...

  • Addressing Research Priorities for Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States. Vermund, Sten H.; Hodder, Sally L.; Justman, Jessica E.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mastro, Timothy D.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Wheeler, Darrell P.; El-Sadr, Wafaa M. // Clinical Infectious Diseases;May2010 Supplement 3, Vol. 50, pS149 

    More than half a million Americans became newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the first decade of the new millennium. The domestic epidemic has had the heaviest impact on men who have sex with men and persons from racial and ethnic minority populations, particularly black...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics