Chapter 24: Effect of Number of Cigarettes Daily Consumed on Offspring Sex Ratio

Khan, Umar Ali; Adil, Malik Muhammad
January 2010
Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological & Radiological Defense;2010, Vol. 8, p189
Academic Journal
Objective: A number of developed countries have demonstrated a significant decline in male to female ratio of children during the past few decades. The current work assessed the offspring sex ratio ( male to female ) when the subjects smoked less than 14 cigarettes per day compared with the subjects who smoked more than 14 cigarettes per day in various cities of Pakistan. Methods: A Cross sectional populated based Survey was carried out at four cities of Pakistan. Sample Size of 405 subjects was calculated using Epi-Info 6.0. The subjects were divided into two main groups that were those consuming less than 14 cigarettes per day and those consuming more than 14 Cigarettes per day. Results: For all four groups where subjects were smoking more than 14 cigarettes per day their offspring ratio (male: female) was 0.54 as compared to those who were smoking less than 14 cigarettes per day (1.15). Overall Male/Female Sex ratio among smokers was 0.85. The overall sex ratio among smokers was significantly lower (p=0.006) as compared to nonsmokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant association of offspring sex-ratio with number of cigarettes consumed per day. (p=0.004). Conclusion: Our study documents that smoking might be a contributing factor to a lower male to female sex ratio of offspring.


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