Risk Indicators of Depressive Symptomatology Among Injection Drug Users and Increased HIV Risk Behaviour

Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Thompson, Adam; Moraros, John; Buckingham, Robert
June 2011
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry;Jun2011, Vol. 56 Issue 6, p358
Academic Journal
Objectives: In 2009, the annual incidence of positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test reports for people in the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR) was 31.3 per 100 000, when the national average was only 9.3 per 100 000. The first objective was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptomatology among injection drug users (IDUs) in the SHR. The second objective was to determine the unadjusted and adjusted risk indicators associated with depressive symptomatology among IDUs. The third objective was to determine if depressive symptomatology was associated with HIV risk behaviours. Methods: From September 2009 to April 2010, 603 current IDUs were surveyed with validated instruments; this sample represents 76.6% of known IDUs in the SHR. Results: Among the respondents, 81.4% reported depressive symptomatology, whereas 57.7% reported more severe depressive symptomatology. After multivariate analysis, the 4 covariates that had an independent association with depressive symptomatology included sexual assault as an adult, sexual assault as a child, attending a residential school, and having an annual income of less than $10 000 Depressive symptomatology was initially associated with 7 HIV risk behaviours. After multivariate analysis, depressive symptomatology was associated with giving sex to get money, giving drugs to get sex, and with more frequently sharing injecting equipment. Conclusions: This study found that depressive symptomatology was strongly associated with injection drug use.


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