A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

Mutch, David M.; Pers, Tune H.; Temanni, M. Ramzi; Pelioux, Veronique; Marquez-Quiñones, Adriana; Holst, Claus; Martinez, J. Aifredo; Babalis, Dimitris; Van Baak, Marleen A.; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Walker, Celia G.; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wirn H. M.; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Clément, Karine
December 2011
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition;Dec2011, Vol. 94 Issue 6, p1399
Academic Journal
Background: Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge. Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6-mo weight-maintenance phase. Participants were classified as weight maintainers (WMs; 0-10% weight regain) and weight regainers (WRs; 50-100% weight regain) by considering changes in body weight during the 2 phases. Anthropometric measurements, bioclinical variables, and scAT gene expression were studied in all individuals before and after the LCD. Energy intake was estimated by using 3-d dietary records. Results: No differences in body weight and fasting insulin were observed between WMs and WRs at baseline or after the LCD period. The LCD resulted in significant decreases in body weight and in several plasma variables in both groups. WMs experienced a significant reduction in insulin secretion in response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test after the LCD; in contrast, no changes in insulin secretion were observed in WRs after the LCD. An ANOVA of scAT gene expression showed that genes regulating fatty acid metabolism, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and apoptosis were regulated differently by the LCD in WM and WR subjects. Conclusion: This study suggests that LCD-induced changes in insulin secretion and scAT gene expression may have the potential to predict successful short-term weight maintenance.


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