Nixon, Kissinger, and the Shah: The Origins of Iranian Primacy in the Persian Gulf*

April 2012
Diplomatic History;Apr2012, Vol. 36 Issue 2, p337
Academic Journal
The Nixon Doctrine marked a turning point in American strategies of containment in the Persian Gulf. Whereas Lyndon Johnson had sought to balance Iran and Saudi Arabia as the 'twin pillars' of the region during the British withdrawal 'east of Suez,' between 1969 and 1972 Nixon gradually adopted a policy of Iranian primacy. Declining Anglo-American power does not provide an adequate explanation for this shift in U.S. Gulf policy. These constraints confronted both Johnson and Nixon, yet each president adopted quite distinct Gulf policies. Drawing on American, British, and Iranian sources, this article makes the case that the shift in U.S. Gulf policy from balancing under Johnson to Iranian primacy under Nixon reflected a change in American thinking about the shah of Iran, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi. This change in American thinking provided fertile ground for the shah's relentless efforts to secure Washington's backing for Iran's regional primacy throughout the 1970s.


Related Articles

  • The White Revolution.  // Time;2/11/1966, Vol. 87 Issue 6, p88 

    The article reports on the development program "White Revolution" launched by Iran's Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlevi to place the county into modern industrialized society. Russia will construct a 286 million dollar steel mill for Iran and agreed to create a plant to turn out bridge girders. Car...

  • On the Way with LBJ.  // Time;8/31/1962, Vol. 80 Issue 09, p16 

    The article reports on the state visit of U.S. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson in Teheran, Iran. It mentions that the Vice President was accompanied by his wife, Lady Bird Johnson, and his daughter, Lynda Johnson. Furthermore, it also cites the warm welcome of several Iranians as he and his...

  • Nixon, Kissinger, and the Shah: The United States and Iran in the Cold War. Summitt, April R. // Journal of American History;Sep2015, Vol. 102 Issue 2, p627 

    No abstract available.

  • WASHINGTON FRONT. MC GRORY, MARY // America;2/1/1969, Vol. 120 Issue 5, p125 

    The author offers her views of the transition of the U.S. presidency from Lyndon B. Johnson to Richard Nixon. According to her, as Johnson bid goodbye, Nixon's staff went to the Senate committees for confirmation. She says that Nixon's men, on the whole, were found to be men of good will and...

  • Thrown Out Like A Dead Mouse The Shah's new memoirs feature bitter accusations.  // Time;12/17/1979, Vol. 114 Issue 25, p24 

    The article offers information related to the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi of Iran. It reports on the production of a 280-page book by the Shah, while he was in exile in Mexico, describing the events that led to his overthrow. It describes the Shah's reaction based on his writings that the U.S....

  • Gifts to presidents: Just what they always wanted? Weintraub, Boris // National Geographic;Jul96, Vol. 190 Issue 1, preceeding p2 

    Highlights gifts to United States presidents. Boots crafted by Zeferino and Eli Rios to Dwight Eisenhower; Lyndon Johnson caricature; Carved whale tooth given to Richard Nixon.

  • At Home.  // National Review Bulletin;10/29/1960, Vol. 9 Issue 17, p4 

    The article describes the change of attitude of U.S. vice presidential candidate Lyndon Johnson, in relation to his views on presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon. When Lyndon was still a Senate majority leader, he courteously give praises to Nixon as the vice president of the country. But...

  • OF MANY THINGS.  // America;1/18/1969, Vol. 120 Issue 3, preceding p53 

    The author discusses the inauguration Richard M. Nixon as president of the U.S. on January 20, 1969. The inauguration of a president reportedly ranks as the noblest civil ritual of the country. President Lyndon B. Johnson was reportedly sworn in and reaffirmed the oath of office of President...

  • Untitled.  // Time;2/28/1969, Vol. 93 Issue 9, p19 

    The article focuses on how Hugh Sidey performed his job as a journalist particularly in providing coverage about the presidents in the U.S. It mentions the trip of Sidey to Seoul, Korea and to Vietnam to cover the two week tour of U.S. President Lyndon Johnson in Asia. It also mentions Sidey's...


Read the Article


Sorry, but this item is not currently available from your library.

Try another library?
Sign out of this library

Other Topics