TITLE

VOJENSTVO BYZANCIE A POLITICKÝCH ÚTVAROV NA ÚZEMÍ KARPATSKEJ KOTLINY OD 2. POLOVICE 7. DO ZAČIATKU 13. STOROČIA

AUTHOR(S)
Husár, Martin
PUB. DATE
January 2011
SOURCE
Constantine's Letters / Konštantínove Listy;2011, Issue 4, p1
SOURCE TYPE
Periodical
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Author of the study focused on two different political and cultural areas that were influencing each other not only in time of early medieval period. He dealt with the strategy, organization, tactics, weapons and defensive equipment of above mentioned areas. Both the Byzantine Empire and the Avar Kaganate (as representative of the middle Danube region) entered to the second half of the 7th century as defeated countries. The significance of the light cavalry archers as well as padded or quilted armours in this time rose probably in both regions. Infantry was more important in the Byzantine Empire than in the Avar Kaganate. At the beginning of the 9th century the Avar Kaganate was smashed by the Frankish Empire, Bulgars and Slavs. In both territories rulers began to rely more on professional part of their armies since the 9th century. That part of army was in the Great Moravia and the East Frankish Empire cavalry retinue or drafted cavalry according to the size of homesteads. Both were heavy cavalry troops equipped mainly with the lances. In the Byzantine Empire the emperors in-creased number of professional tagmata units that consisted mostly of light or heavy cavalry. In both regions dominated in quantity infantry, but with higher importance in the middle Danube area. Situation in Carpathian basin changed after penetration of Hungarian tribes into its eastern part in 896. They conquered most of the Carpathian basin just by their light cavalry regiments. Later in the 11th century they began to establish their own kingdom. There were serious tendencies to install into the army heavy cavalry units of Western Europe style (mostly in king's retinue or in comitate castle units), but the bulk of the Hungarian army until the end of era we tracked was still light cavalry. It was probably due to permanent influx of nomadic mercenaries like Petchenegs or Cumans into the Hungarian kingdom in that time. The Byzantine Empire started since the middle of the 10th century to reconquest some lost territories. Because of this fact prevailed in the Byzantine army unified and specialized professional or mercenary tagmata troops. At the top of the empire's units stood heaviest cavalry regiments -- katafraktoi. The Komnenoi emperors (1081 -- 1185), due to decline of native drafting units, kept the growing number of mercenary units that were equal or similar to their opponents. They fought battles against the heavy knight cavalry of the Western Europe States and also against the Seldjuk's light cavalry archers. Infantry was losing its quality in both regions after the 10th century except the short revival in the Byzantine Empire since the middle of the 10th till the course of the 11th century.
ACCESSION #
75066994

 

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