TITLE

Eliminating Vertically-transmitted HIV/AIDS while Improving Access to Treatment and Care forWomen, Children and Adolescents in Jamaica

AUTHOR(S)
Christie, C. D. C.; Pierre, R. B.
PUB. DATE
July 2012
SOURCE
West Indian Medical Journal;Jul2012, Vol. 61 Issue 4, p396
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Background and Methods: To celebrate Jamaica's 50th birthday after receiving independence from Great Britain, we summarize our collaborative published research in the prevention, treatment and care of paediatric, perinatal and adolescent HIV/AIDS in Jamaica. Results: Public access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Jamaica has shown that a "test and treat" strategy associated with "treatment for prevention" works for HIV-infected pregnant women by reducing their HIV-attributable morbidity and mortality and reducing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates to < 2%, islandwide. These women experience significant psychosocial stress and targeted interventions are assisting them to improve their quality of life. HIV-exposed and infected children come from large families with high rates of teen pregnancies and significant financial challenges needing sustained interventions. HIV-exposed but uninfected Jamaican infants have higher rates of communityacquired infections, including lower respiratory tract infections, sepsis and gastroenteritis compared to community controls, although their growth rates are normal. In evaluation of replication capacity, viral control and clinical outcomes after vertical transmission in Jamaican mother-infant pairs, HLA-B57 was found to confer the advantage of restricted HIV replication primarily by driving and maintaining a fitness-attenuating mutation in p-24 Gag. Viral sequences from 52 MTCT Jamaican pairs were compared and 1475 sites of mother-infant amino acid divergence within Nef, Gag and Pol were identified, suggesting modest fitness cost with many CD8 mutations. HIV-infected Jamaican children are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, as a result of increased public access to ART and improved collaborative capacity in ART management. Successful transition of HIV-infected children through adolescence into adulthood requires a strong multidisciplinary team approach, including long-term ART management addressing non-adherence, drug resistance and toxicity, treatment failure and limited options for second line and salvage therapy, while attending to their sexual and reproductive health, psychosocial, educational and vocational issues and palliative care. Conclusion: Over the past nine years, Jamaica has made excellent strides to eliminate vertically transmitted HIV/AIDS, while reducing the HIV-attributable morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and in HIV-infected children. Continued successful transition of HIV-infected children through adolescence into adulthood will require a strong multidisciplinary team approach. Antecedentes y Métodos: A fin de celebrar el 50 aniversario de Jamaica tras recibir la independencia de Gran Bretaña, resumimos nuestra investigación colaborativa publicada sobre la prevención, tratamiento y cuidado del VIH/SIDA pediátrico, perinatal y juvenil en Jamaica. Resultados: El acceso público a la terapia antiretroviral (TAR) en Jamaica ha mostrado que una estrategia "test and treat" asociada con el "tratamiento para la prevención" funciona de manera efectiva con mujeres embarazadas infectadas por VIH, reduciendo la morbilidad y la mortalidad atribuibles al VIH, y disminuyendo las tasas de transmisión madre a niño (MTCT) a < 2% en toda la isla. Estas mujeres experimentan un estrés psicosocial considerable, y las intervenciones aplicadas están ayudándolas a mejorar su calidad de vida. Los niños expuestos e infectados por el VIH provienen de familias numerosas con altas tasas de embarazos adolescentes y considerables retos financieros. Se trata pues de familias que necesitan intervenciones sostenidas. Los infantes jamaicanos expuestos pero no infectados por el VIH tienen tasas más altas de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad - incluyendo infecciones de las vías respiratorias bajas, sepsis y gastroenteritis - en comparación con los controles comunitarios, si bien sus tasas de crecimiento eran normales. Al evaluar la capacidad de replicación, el control viral, y los resultados clínicos tras la transmisión vertical en pares madre-infante jamaicanos, se halló que el HLA-B57 confería la ventaja de restringir la replicación del VIH mediante la conducción y mantenimiento de una mutación atenuante de la aptitud adaptativa (fitness) en p-24 gag. Las secuencias virales de 52 pares jamaicanos MTCT fueron comparadas, y se identificaron 1475 sitios de divergencia de aminoácido de madre-infante dentro de nef, gag y pol, lo cual sugiere un costo modesto de aptitud adaptativa con muchas mutaciones de CD8. Los niños jamaicanos infectados por VIH están sobreviviendo hasta llegar a ser adolescentes o adultos, como resultado del aumento del acceso público a la TAR, y al mejoramiento de capacidad colaborativa en el tratamiento de TAR. La transición exitosa de niños infectados con VIH a través de la adolescencia hasta la adultez requiere un enfoque multidisciplinarlo en equipo, incluyendo el tratamiento de TAR a largo plazo. Dicho tratamiento se dirige a la no adherencia, la resistencia a los medicamentos y la toxicidad, el fracaso del tratamiento y opciones limitadas para las terapias de segunda línea y de salvamento, a la par que se atiende a la salud reproductiva y sexual de los pacientes, a los problemas vocacionales, educacionales y psicosociales, y el cuidado paliativo. Conclusión: En los últimos nueve años, Jamaica ha dado pasos extraordinarios para eliminar la transmisión vertical del VIH/SIDA, reduciendo la morbilidad y la mortalidad atribuibles al VIH en mujeres embarazadas y en niños infectados por VIH. La transición exitosa continuada de los niños infectados por VIH a través de la adolescencia hasta la adultez requerirá un fuerte enfoque multidisciplinarlo en equipo.
ACCESSION #
82939051

 

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