Relationship between periodontal inflammation and fetal growth in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Furuta, Michiko; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu; Watanabe, Tatsuo
May 2013
Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics;May2013, Vol. 287 Issue 5, p951
Academic Journal
Purpose: Periodontal disease in pregnant women, evaluated by probing pocket depth (PPD) or clinical attachment level (CAL), significantly increases the risk of subsequent preterm birth (PB) and/or low birth weight (LBW). However, PPD and CAL do not always reflect current periodontal tissue inflammation. Therefore, assessment of bleeding on probing index (BOP), an indicator of periodontal inflammation, may be appropriate. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between periodontal inflammation and fetal growth in pregnant women after periodontal treatment. Methods: We recruited 203 pregnant women (mean age 31.8 ± 4.5 years), including 20 subjects with periodontal inflammation and 183 periodontally healthy controls, after periodontal treatment. Fetal growth parameters as well as periodontal conditions were recorded. Results: Perinatal gestational age was 39.4 ± 1.3 weeks; 8 subjects had a PB and 12 had an infant with a LBW. Results of multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that birth length was negatively correlated with BOP% ( β = −0.175; p = 0.002). Fetal femur length, and birth length and weight among mothers with low periodontal inflammation were significantly higher than those among mothers with high periodontal inflammation ( p < 0.05). The LBW rate in the high periodontal inflammation group was significantly higher than that in the low periodontal inflammation group ( p < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that periodontal inflammation is correlated with fetal femur length, birth weight, and birth length.


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