"We were real, so there was no need to be afraid"

Yung, Judy
January 2012
Chinese America: History & Perspectives;2012, p19
Academic Journal
The article discusses the detention of Lum Ngow, the son of a Chinese immigrant to the U.S., at the Angel Island immigration station in San Francisco Bay, California during the early 20th century. Particular focus is given to an oral history account in which Lum Ngow described living conditions, food, and entertainment in the detention center. According to the author, some Chinese immigrants responded to the intense and detailed interrogations required by the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act by lying to U.S. officials, resulting in the deportation of people legally eligible for U.S. citizenship. Details on attempts by Lum Ngow's father, Lum Piu, to appeal the deportation of his wife and son are also presented.


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