TITLE

Enhancement of Osteogenic Differentiation and Proliferation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by a Modified Low Intensity Ultrasound Stimulation under Simulated Microgravity

AUTHOR(S)
Uddin, Sardar M. Z.; Qin, Yi-Xian
PUB. DATE
September 2013
SOURCE
PLoS ONE;Sep2013, Vol. 8 Issue 9, p1
SOURCE TYPE
Academic Journal
DOC. TYPE
Article
ABSTRACT
Adult stem cells can differentiate into multiple lineages depending on their exposure to differing biochemical and biomechanical inductive factors. Lack of mechanical signals due to disuse can inhibit osteogenesis and induce adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Long-term bed rest due to both brain/spinal cord injury and space travel can lead to disuse osteoporosis that is in part caused by a reduced number of osteoblasts. Thus, it is essential to provide proper mechanical stimulation for cellular viability and osteogenesis, particularly under disuse conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived human stem cells (Ad-hMSC) in simulated microgravity conditions. Cells were cultured in a 1D clinostat to simulate microgravity (SMG) and treated with LIPUS at 30mW/cm2 for 20 min/day. It was hypothesized that the application of LIPUS to SMG cultures would restore osteogenesis in Ad-hMSCs. The results showed significant increases in ALP, OSX, RANKL, RUNX2, and decreases in OPG in LIPUS treated SMG cultures of Ad-MSC compared to non-treated cultures. LIPUS also restored OSX, RUNX2 and RANKL expression in osteoblast cells. SMG significantly reduced ALP positive cells by 70% (p<0.01) and ALP activity by 22% (p<0.01), while LIPUS treatment restored ALP positive cell number and activity to equivalence with normal gravity controls. Extracellular matrix collagen and mineralization was assessed by Sirius red and Alizarin red staining, respectively. SMG cultures showed little or no collagen or mineralization, but LIPUS treatment restored collagen content to 50% (p<0.001) and mineralization by 45% (p<0.001) in LIPUS treated-SMG cultures relative to SMG-only cultures. The data suggest that LIPUS treatment can restore normal osteogenic differentiation of MSCs from disuse by daily short duration stimulation.
ACCESSION #
90531379

 

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