Mycobacterial Etiology of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Association with HIV Infection and Multidrug Resistance in Northern Nigeria

Aliyu, Gambo; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Abimiku, Alash'le; Ezati, Nicholas; Mosunmola, Iwakun; Hungerford, Laura; Brown, Clayton; Tracy, Kathleen J.; Obasanya, Joshua; Blattner, William
January 2013
Tuberculosis Research & Treatment;2013, p1
Academic Journal
Objective. Data on pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex in Nigeria are limited. We investigated species of MTB complex in TB cases from northern Nigeria. Methods. New TB suspects were enrolled, screened for HIV and their sputum samples were cultured after routine microscopy. Genotypes MTBC and MTBDR plus were used to characterize the MTB complex species and their resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin. Results. Of the 1,603 patients enrolled, 375 (23%) had MTB complex infection: 354 (94.4%) had Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 20 (5.3%) had Mycobacterium africanum; and one had Mycobacteriumbovis (0.3%).Cases were more likely to be male (AOR = 1.87, 95%CI : 1.42-2.46; P ⩽ 0.001), young (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI : 1.56-2.65; P ⩽ 0.001) and have HIV (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI : 1.06-1.92; P = 0.032). In 23 patients (6.1%), the mycobacterium was resistant to at least one drug, and these cases were more likely to have HIV and prior TB treatment (AOR = 3.62, 95%CI : 1.51-8.84; P = 0.004; AOR : 4.43; 95% CI : 1.71-11.45 P = 0.002 resp.), compared to cases without any resistance. Conclusion. Mycobacterium tuberculosis remained the predominant specie in TB in this setting followed by Mycobacterium africanum while Mycobacterium bovis was rare. The association of TB drug resistance with HIV has implications for TB treatment.


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