Microbubble skin friction reduction on an axisymmetric body under the influence of applied axial pressure gradients

Clark, H.; Deutsch, S.
December 1991
Physics of Fluids A;Dec91, Vol. 3 Issue 12, p2948
Academic Journal
The influence of both a favorable and an adverse applied axial pressure gradient on microbubble-induced skin friction reduction was examined. An 87 mm diameter, 632 mm long model equipped with a 273 mm long cylindrical force balance was employed. Experiments were carried out in a 305 mm diameter water tunnel, at free-stream speeds of 4.6, 7.6, 10.7, 13.7, and 16.8 m/sec. Air was injected at rates as high as 12×10-3 m3/sec. Measurement of the static pressure along the body with gas injection demonstrated that gas injection did not alter the pressure gradient and that the flow remained axisymmetric. Reductions in skin friction for the zero pressure gradient case agreed well with the earlier results of Deutsch and Castano [Phys. Fluids 29, 3590 (1986)]. The adverse-gradient-induced separation of the boundary layer for speeds at and above 7.6 m/sec, for air injection rates in excess of 5.0×10-3 m3/sec. The favorable gradient strongly inhibited the drag reduction mechanism [47].


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