Critical Thinking in the Tower Ivory

Whitaker, Albert Keith
December 2002
Academic Questions;Winter2002/2003, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p50
Academic Journal
In the midst of Nathaniel Hawthorne's much celebrated short story, "The Celestial Railroad," which recreates the journey of John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" by train, Hawthorne and his fellow passengers ride by the cave where, in Bunyan's day, lived the cruel giants Pope and Pagan. Though critical thinking found its parentage in schools of education and, as we shall see, attained national fame in high schools, it eventually muscled its way to the heights of academia, especially in liberal arts colleges. Its influence of course varies from campus to campus. Critical thinkers like to proclaim that their intellectual ancestry reaches straight back to Socrates. Foundation, national, and state money began flowing to the new cause, and all sorts of lesson plans began to be marketed to teachers, by such purveyors as the above-named colleges and foundations, as well as the Scholastic Institute, Innovative Sciences, and the Edward de Bono School of Thinking.


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